TWENTY-TWO

Emergent Mammals

adapted from Biology, 10th Edition, 2015, pp 443, 687-690; and youtube: How Reptiles Evolved To Form Humans

PROKARYOTE

EUKARYOTE (DOMAIN)

protist

unikont

opisthokont

choanoflagellate

FIRST ANIMAL

bilateria

deuterostome

CHORDATE

vertebrate - with backbone - FISH

pre-vertebrate - no backbone

jawed

jawless

(agnathan)

ostracoderms

(gnathostome)

acanthodians

placoderms

urochordate - tunicates

cephalochordate - lancelets

TETRAPODS

AMPHIBIANS

AMNIOTES -

REPTILES

amniotic egg

DIAPSIDS

(sauropsida)

2 pairs of skull temporal bone openings

ANAPSIDS

turtles

ichthyosaurs (superorder)

BIRDS (class)

SYNAPSIDS

single pair of skull temporal bone openings

THERAPSIDS

MAMMALS (class)- the road to us

2016

self-replicating RNA

DNA (DRNA)

lipid-protein membrane

macromolecular aggregations

LUCA

(last universal common ancestor)

BACTERIA (DOMAIN)

ARCHAEA (DOMAIN)

PLANTS

FUNGI

cartilagenous fishes

bony fishes

lepidosaurs (superorder)

archosaurs (superorder)

t. rex

crocodilia (order)

temporal bone openings lost

hadrocodium: one of the earliest mammals,  with fur, 3 floating ear bones, and distinctive cusps on its teeth.

*375 mya

*195 mya

Archaeopteryx

*155 mya

coelomate (mesoderm-lined body cavity)