PHYLUM: CHORDATA

CLASS: MAMMALS

ORDER: PRIMATES

SUBPHYLUM: VERTEBRATES

KINGDOM: ANIMALIA

based on features #1-13, below, early "true primate" (euprimate) fossil evidence reveals:

small,

nocturnal,

tree-living species,

in tropical forests of the

warm, (early) EOCENE (56-34 mya) epoch 

 

Primate features:

1) Grasping foot with divergent hallux (big toe)

2) Hallux nail, not claw

3) Heel (calcaneous) elongation

4) Hindlimb dominance during locomotion

5) Grasping hands with opposable thumbs

6) Nails on most digits

7) Greater degree of forward rotation of eyes

8) Eyes set closer together, for stereoscopic vision

9) Increasing brain size

10) Longer period of gestation

11) slower fetal growth,

12) Longer life-span

13) loss of 1 incisor and 1 pre-molar per tooth row (per quadrant?)

Sorting Out Sixty Million Years:

The Emergence Of Primates-

On The Way To Becoming Human

adapted from

The Complete World of Human Evolution, Stringer, C., 2005, p. 82-83

and

Primate Adaptation & Evolution, Fleagle, J., 3rd Edition, 2013, p. 57,83

DOMAIN: EUKARYA

altiatlasius

earliest proto-primate fossils

 65 -55 mya

aegyptopithecus

[propliopithecoid zeuxis] 

34 - 30 mya

 anthropoid 

arboreal fruit-eater,

discovered by

Elwyn Simons

 Fayum, Egypt

proconsul [proconsul heseloni]

20 mya

ape-like teeth

may represent the divergence

of

apes from man

THE EMERGENCE OF PRIMATES

adapted from multiple sources: see Bibliography)

to form the Himalayan uplift

to form Himalayan uplift

Plesiadapiformes: extinct, early paleocene, insectivore, mammal, possibly the last common ancestor (LCA) of all primates (see Kendrick, J.), comprised of 14 species, only sharing primate features of a slightly enlarged brain, and primate-like molars

(see primate features, below)

TWENTY-SEVEN

Emergent Primates III

EPOCH: PALEOCENE

66 - 56 mya

EPOCH: OLIGOCENE

34 - 23 mya

EPOCH: MIOCENE

23 - 5.3 mya

EPOCH: EOCENE

       56 - 34 mya

Eocene is Greek for "dawn" and "new":

 

Darwinius Masillae

strepsirrhine

47 mya

discovered in Messel, Germany 1983

Infra-order: Adapiformes

resembles modern lemur

middle Eocene

basal primate characteristics

ancestor to modern lemurs & lorises

 

Eosimias 

 "Dawn Monkey"

haplorhine

known by its fossil jaw and skull fragments

considered an example of the earliest

anthropoid

(45 mya).

195 mya