KINGDOM: ANIMALIA

SUB-KINGDOM: BILATERIA

SUB-KINGDOM: RADIATA

PROTOSTOMES

DEUTEROSTOMES (CLADE)

PORIFERA

PLACOZOA

CNIDARIA

CTENOPHORA

- spiral embryonic cleavage

- mesoderm splits=coelom formation

- blastopore becomes the mouth

- radial embryonic cleavage

- gut outpocket=coelom formation

- blastopore becomes the anus

PHYLUM: echinodermata

PHYLUM:hemichordata

PHYLUM: CHORDATES

features of chordates

(Anthro.Palomar.Edu, and Vertebrates, p.82):

1 - a dorsal, nerve tube;

2 - lateral, pharyngeal gill slits or pouches, to extract O2 from water in embryonic stage;

3 - notochord - a rudimentary, dorsal (along back), internal skeleton of stiff cartilage, above which runs a hollow nerve cord;

4 - a post-anal tail; and

5 - an endostyle.

urochordates

cephalochordates

VERTEBRATES

(3 SUB-PHYLA OF CHORDATES)

NINETEEN

Emergent Vertebrates II

vertebrate: also called craniata, an animal derived from the phylumchordates, sub-phylum vertebrata, having a backbone and bony skull that partly encloses a central nervous system. The hollow, dorsal nerve tube is now replaced by the spinal cord, which is now protected by a segmented vertebral, or spinal, column, composed of cartilage and/or bone. The head and brain house paired sense organs, that coordinate movement and sensation. Fish were the first vertebratesSub-phylum vertebrata includes 8 classes, including 4 classes of fish (including agnatha, chondrichthyes, and osteichthyes), and the additional classes: amphibia, reptilia, aves (birds), and mammalia (Anthro.Palomar.edu).

acoelomates

coelomates